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Transdermal Pain—Classes of Drugs:

 

Analgesic (Ketoprofen)
This is a NSAID with analgesic and antipyretic properties. It reduces inflammation and pain by stopping the chemicals released in the body that mediate inflammation, specifically prostaglandin and leukotrienes.
 
Muscle Relaxer (Cyclobenzaprine, Baclofen)
This is commonly utilized for the relief of muscle spasm associated with acute and or chronic painful musculoskeletal conditions. These drugs inhibit norepinephrine reuptake and facilitates serotonergic system inhibition. Physicians prescribe these drugs topically to target problems such as muscle spasms, muscle tension, and sports injury.
 
NMDA Receptor Antagonist (Ketamine and Amantadine)
This is commonly utilized for general anesthetic purposes to prevent pain and discomfort during certain medical procedures, tests, or to treat refractory pain topically. These drugs work on a specific pain receptor on the nerve ending named N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor (NMDA receptor). This receptor is activated wen neurotransmitters attach to binding sites on the nerve ending surface. Ketamine and Amantadine prevent this activation by blocking or deactivating the binding sites so that the nerve will not transmit the signal of pain to the brain. Physicians prescribe this drug, topically, to target problems such as chronic regional pain syndrome, post herpetic neuralgia, diabetic peripheral neuropathy, and other general breakthrough pain problems.
 
Anesthetics (Lidocaine/Tetracaine)
These drugs stabilize the nerve membrane and stop the movement of sodium through it. This prevents the pain message from travelling through the nerve to the brain. Physicians prescribe these drugs topically to target problems such as providing dermal analgesia and to numb the skin area it is applied to.
 
Neuropathic Agent (Gabapentin)
This is commonly used to treat diabetic peripheral neuropathy, post herpetic neuralgia and other neuropathic pain problems. Gabapentin mimics the action of GABA which is a neurotransmitter that inhibits the excitability of nerves thus decreasing the signal of pain through the nerve to the brain. It also decreases muscle contractions. Physicians prescribe these drugs, topically, to target problems such as diabetic peripheral neuropathy, post herpetic neuralgia, and other nerve pain problems.
 
Tri-Cyclic Anti-Depressant (Amitriptyline)
This drug blocks reuptake of serotonin and norepinephrine in the central nervous system which terminates transmitting activity of the nerves. Physicians prescribe this drug, topically, to target problems such as pain of neuropathic origin, diabetic neuropathy, and to relax the area of treatment.
 
VersaPro ® Cream
This cream is an oil in water emulsion that acts in the same way a PLO base works by penetrating the skin surface to move drugs through the layers of the dermis. The cream uses surfactants to create micelles (small, spherical bubbles) which hold the water soluble drugs inside the “bubble” and water insoluble drugs on the outside.